For the ancient Hebrews, poetrywas typically not based on rhyme, but on a conceptknown as parallelism. His student, a fellow named Tyconius, of the sect of the Donatists, had a great deal of influence on Augustine. : 2 Let us come before His presence with thanksgiving, Let us shout joyfully to Him with psalms. And(kai) I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. And(kai) cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. SYNTHETIC PARALLELISM Psalm 38:13-15 But I am like a deaf man; I do not hear, like a mute man who does not open his mouth. And(kai) the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia. There are numerous types of parallelism used in Hebrew poetry, including synonymous parallelism, emblematic parallelism, and antithetical parallelism. This is similar to the way Hebrew parallelism in the Psalms organizes and structures ideas. His book “More Than Conquerors” is one of the more popular Amillennial defenses in print (although I find it humorous that he took his title from the book of Romans). Most line segments in Hebrew poetry use parallelism. The Use of Parallelism in Psalm 139. Poetry is a highly stylized form of writing usedby many cultures, each having their own uniquemethods of conveying information. a. hymns of praise English uses parallelism quite often, as in the proverb “like father, like son.” A. The third part repeats the first part and the fourth part repeats the second part. “As the deer pants for streams of water, so my soul pants for you, O God” (Psalm 42:1). I. Cyc. And(kai) I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. Example: Psalms 24:2 Antithetical parallelism - The truth presented in one line is strengthened by a contrasting statement in the next line. Jim – Yes, I’m familiar with Hendrickson. I. Answer: A major literary device in Hebrew poetry is parallelism. Begins with intent to give praise and thanks to God, recounts the crisis and and expresses thanks for deliverance and then repeats. Anthony Hoekema, one of the leading proponents of the Progressive Parallelism view, understood where the “fatal flaw” was in his theory. Progressive parallelism - there are several varieties, the most common being: a. Stairlike 1) Composed of several lines, each providing a complete element of the aggregate or composite thought 2) Notice Ps 1:1, "Blessed is the man..." a) "Who WALKS not in the counsel of the ungodly" b) "Nor STANDS in the path of the sinners" c) "Nor SITS in the seat of the scornful" b. Alternate Parallelism. And(kai) out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And(kai) after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. I have become like a man who does not hear, and in whose mouth are no rebukes. c. Psalms 116 and 147 are divided into 2 each. In other words, they rely on the rather random chapter and verse divisions, of which John’s First Century audience would have been completely unaware. And(kai) I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. The nature of Hebrew poetry was recognizedin the 12th century by Ibn Ezra and by Kimchi inthe 13th century, but it was m… And(kai) I fell at his feet to worship him. a. Psalms 9 and 10 are together making one acrostic psalm. Parallelism: pairing of a line with one or more lines that are linguistically equivalent, A. Synonomous: two lines repeating the same text (example: Psalm 59), Nor chasten me in your displeasure." This parallelism is often progressive like stairs that lead to or descend from a central point. (20:7), C. Synthetic: an extension of the same thought in one line: (example: Psalm 148), _______________________ / _________________________, "O sing unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the Lord, all the earth." And(kai) the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. 2 Let us come before him with thanksgiving and extol him with music and song. The number of Psalms may be related to the annual Scripture reading cycle of the early synagogue D. A sample of ways to group the Psalms: 1. by theme or topic. Psalms > Info on Psalms > Examples of Parallelism. Each succeeding line adds a thought to the former line or lines. The alternate parts may be either synonymous or antithetic. cf. Often, the parallelism is synonymous —the same idea is restated in different words, side by side (see Psalm 40:13 ). EXAMPLE: The daughter of Zion is left A: like a booth in a vineyard B: like a hut in a cucumber field 3. Tyconius was one of the earliest theologians to challenge the chiliastic view. Synthetic parallelism as a category collects various forms for extending the relationship of parallel members beyond a simple two unit structure (see Fig. And it seems to me that they are much too reliant on divisions of John’s letter that are not obvious in the original text. (Rev 19:1-20:4). The parallelism in verse 2 elaborates on law (“delight is in the law” and “in his law doth he meditate”), and verse 3 provides a simile (he is “like a tree planted by the rivers”) to broaden the understanding of goodness. To Understand Psalms, Find & Compare Parallel Elements. b. Psalms 114 and 115 are together, both being Hallel Psalms. As the name implies, this type has the second or parallel line saying about the same thing as the first—for emphasis. I am the rose of Sharon, And the lily of the valleys (Song 2:1). But for you, O LORD, do I wait; it is you, O Lord my God, who will answer. However, Psalm includes clearly dividable 116 poems which have superscriptions such as titles and comments. (38:1) B. Antithetical: statement followed by its opposite (example: Psalm 49: 6-10) The psalms are Hebrew poems. In his book, The Bible and The Future, Hoekema wrote, commenting on Revelation 20:1-6: “The premillennial interpretation of these verses understands them as describing a millennial reign of Christ on earth which will follow his Second Coming. De Rossi, a learned Jew of the sixteenth century, first published a mass of information on the subject in a remarkable work, Meor Enajim (i.e., The Light of the Eyes)( Kitto. So, that’s where the rubber hits the proverbial road, exegetically speaking. Hebrew parallelism is discussed below here. Notice Ps 1:1 This is essentially what parallelism in poetry is, but I have found that it goes much further than that – much further. Then, give them the pericope cited above and ask them to find the chapter division. Upon the initial reading of this work, one may be tempted to conclude that the theme or purpose of the poem is the transcendent nature of God. Parallelism is pervasive throughout many of these poetic books and contributes meter and cadence to the poem. The reason, I believe, that he eschews exegesis at this point is that the grammar undermines his assertion. The Reformed exegete will usually argue from the text and carefully prove that the original author’s intentions are best demonstrated by the words they chose to use. : 2 Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving, and make a joyful noise unto him with psalms. 12:28). (38:1), B. Antithetical: statement followed by its opposite (example: Psalm 49: 6-10). And(kai) to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. Late in the Fourth Century, Tyconius created his seven rules of bible interpretation. Let’s start reading at Revelation 19: 1 and follow John’s use of this conjunction. 226-227). And her smoke rose up for ever and ever. The following examples, being close translations of the original text, will better illustrate Hebrew parallelism than does our Douai version which (in regard to the Psalms) has reached us through the medium of a Latin translation of the Septuagint Greek: SYNONYMOUS PARALLELISM. Find someone who is completely unfamiliar with the Bible; someone who has never read the book of Revelation before. 3. He gives us no grammatical or exegetical evidence for the idea of parallelism; he just assumes it and charges forward. And(kai) a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.