EA provides 'road maps' to help chart the implementation of new and evolving applications to meet business needs. The business mission is the primary driver. The Enterprise Architecture Reference Traditional Model offers a clear distinction between the architecture domains (business, information/data, application/integration and technical/infrastructure). An often cited source when talking about the subject of EA layers is [WS08], who analyzed The Open Group Architecture Framework version 8.1 (TOGAF), the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework version 1.1 (FEAF) and the ARIS Framework, with regards to the EA layers … The five layers … Layer 1: Enterprise Governance; Layer 2: Business(es) Layer 3: Information (facilities) Layer 4: IT Infrastructure(s) All these layers and entities are part of a container entity like 'Enterprise', 'Organization' or Company. In 2013, TOGAF[19] is the most popular Architecture framework (judged by published certification numbers) that some assume it defines EA. Source systems should export data in a single format. An example of the list of reference architecture patterns in the application and information architecture domains are available at Architectural pattern (computer science). In 2002/3, in its Enterprise Edition, TOGAF 8 shifted focus from the technology architecture layer to the higher business, data and application layers. Every layers-based pattern for enterprise-architecture – such as in the common ‘three-architectures’ model popularised in TOGAF, Zachman, Archimate and elsewhere – represents an arbitrary set of overlays and assumptions onto the actual enterprise … The application and technology domains (not to be confused with business domains) are characterized by domain capabilities and domain services. An example of the EA domain and subdomains is in the image on the right. Environment (the external entities and activities monitored, supported or directed by the business). Indeed, there are advantages to adopting the SOA approach even if you’re not at the stage at which CISR says enterprises can reap its full benefits. Security can't be appropriately applied without an understanding of the risk, including existing threats and impacts, as well as the "value" of what is being secured. Layers are filters for the overall view of architecture, kind of a grouping of like artifacts to support the entire architecture for the focused view. Use a meaningful identity - Users and applications should be permitted through their identity and system and not their current address. understand the issues and opportunities with the current applications and technical architecture; develop a future state and migration path for the technology that supports the enterprise; provide business executives with a direction and decision making framework for IT capital expenditures; provide the information system (IS) with a blueprint for development. The paper did not mention enterprise architecture. planning and implementing enterprise analysis to successfully execute on business strategies Give preference to services that provide full management and operation capabilities to application teams in order to minimize redundant investment in staff, skills, and computing resources. Provide the means for migrating to a Cloud infrastructure. Transport Layer. Ensure the Cloud resources provide resiliency to customer applications. With a layered architecture, applications can enforce restrictions on which layers can communicate with other layers. There are at least two domains, "Business Modeling" and "Current Systems and Technology", which can be further broken down into "Data Architecture… Business Architecture Meta Model; We have broken out the business layer relations as they are quite broad, the other layers are within the diagrams. ARCON – A Reference Architecture for Collaborative Networks – not focused on a single enterprise but rather on networks of enterprises, European Space Agency Architectural Framework (ESAAF) - a framework for European space-based Systems of Systems, Nederlandse Overheid Referentie Architectuur (NORA) – a reference framework from the Dutch Government, India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA) framework -, ASSIMPLER Framework – an architecture framework, based on the work of Mandar Vanarse at Wipro in 2002. Note that the applications architecture is about the choice of and relationships between applications in the enterprise's application portfolio, not about the internal architecture of a single application (which is often called application architecture). BRM (Build-Run-Manage) Framework - an architecture framework created by Sanjeev "Sunny" Mishra during his early days at IBM in 2000. Enterprise, Business and IT Architects at all levels who construct and govern architecture building blocks (ABBs) to enable the creation of effective solution building blocks. Focus on using architecture patterns to achieve efficient results, modularity and enterprise-wide standardization. L.M. It was not an EA framework as we see it now, but it helped to establish the notion of dividing EA into architecture domains or layers. This book emphasises the need for enterprise architects to focus on core business processes ("Companies excel because they've [decided] which processes they must execute well, and have implemented the IT systems to digitise those processes.") Align to ITSM practices. For many years, it has been common to regard the architecture domains as layers, with the idea that each layer contains components that execute processes and offer services to the layer above. Select and build applications that include re-usable components. correspondence rules integrating those viewpoints cited before. Source systems should provide data in only one format. Establishing and Maintaining An Enterprise Architecture Capability [9] However, some still use the term Enterprise Architecture as a synonym for Business Architecture, rather than covering all four architecture domains - business, data, applications and technology. There are four architecture domains that are commonly accepted as subsets of an overall enterprise architecture: Business Architecture Defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes. Select and build applications that meet multiple needs and can support multiple organizations. Middleware has historically reflected Information Technology solutions that could be shared by multiple users, such as shared Oracle databases. Zachman has always focused on architecture description advice. Data and information are key University assets that must be managed to maximize value and minimize risk. Give preference to shared services that are able to support multiple applications using the smallest number of instance implementations. "Although many popular information systems planning methodologies, design approaches, and various tools and techniques do not preclude or are not inconsistent with enterprise-level analysis, few of them explicitly address or attempt to define enterprise architectures. Find published architecture standards and guidance to align technology strategy across the university. Then and in later papers, Zachman used the word enterprise as a synonym for business. Build security into the entire product lifecycle. As such they must deliver the appropriate 'fit, form, and function' to the business owners. Reuse common capabilities and automate repetitive processes. Enterprise architecture frameworks that are released as open source: Components of enterprise architecture framework, Enterprise architecture domains and subdomains, Types of enterprise architecture framework. TOGAF started out taking a strategic and enterprise-wide, but technology-oriented, view. It takes … Manage and document your API lifecycle. The architecture was split into technology, applications, information, and business domains. [9], In 1996, the US IT Management Reform Act, more commonly known as the Clinger-Cohen Act, repeatedly directed that a US federal government agency's investment in IT must be mapped to identifiable business benefits. This layer is very powerful and is arguably the most comprehensive layer in any of the enterprise architecture tools - this is purposely done to enable you to answer complex enterprise architecture focused questions about your information and data architecture… Prioritize user impact in development and selection efforts. Evolution and reinvestment in applications are driven in part by changing business requirements, but also in part by transitions in technologies such as web-based applications, and cloud computing. Since Stephen Spewak's Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. Obtain data from other systems only when needed, except when coordinated snapshots are needed for consistency such as fiscal year closing. Use services from other applications when available. Use shared services that work in multi-tenant environments. A 2008 research project for the development of professional certificates in enterprise and solution architecture by the British Computer Society (BCS) showed that enterprise architecture has always been inseparable from information system architecture, which is natural, since business people need information to make decisions and carry out business processes. the types of concerns arising in that domain, architecture viewpoints framing those concerns and. [3] To manage the scale and complexity of this system, an architectural framework provides tools and approaches that help architects abstract from the level of detail at which builders work, to bring enterprise design tasks into focus and produce valuable architecture description documentation. Thus the role of Middleware is to provide complex services to application teams in an approachable and robust way. Assess risk across the entire system, not only within a particular layer. [11][12], In 1986, the PRISM architecture framework was developed as a result of the research project sponsored by a group of companies, including IBM, which was seemingly the first published EA framework.[13]. Select and build applications that comply with contemporary development, operations, and support practices. By 1980, IBM's Business Systems Planning (BSP) was promoted as a method for analyzing and designing an organization's information architecture, with the following goals: In 1982, when working for IBM and with BSP, John Zachman outlined his framework for enterprise-level "Information Systems Architecture". Provide expertise and offer services that enable the customer to make well-informed decisions and actively manage their applications. Avoid the duplication of effort and unnecessary expense of redundant implementations. In 1998, The Federal CIO Council began developing the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) in accordance with the priorities enunciated in Clinger-Cohen and issued it in 1999. A view model is a framework that defines the set of views or approaches used in systems analysis, systems design, or the construction of an enterprise architecture. Use infrastructure and services that enable developers and administrators to manage application performance, cost and operational risk. Control access using identity rather than network address. Harvard University Information Technology784 Memorial Drive, 2nd FloorCambridge, MA 02138. In 1989, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published the NIST Enterprise Architecture Model. The NIST Enterprise Architecture Model seemingly was the first publication that consistently used the term "Enterprise Architecture". The basic data model type which is most commonly used is called merda (master entity relationship diagrams assessment, see entity-relationship model). The four commonly accepted domains of enterprise architecture are: Business architecture domain – describes how the enterprise is organizationally structured and what functional capabilities are necessary to deliver the business vision… Here are some examples: enterprise business architect, enterprise documentational architect, enterprise application architect, enterprise infrastructure architect, enterprise information architect, etc. Data Layer (Business information and other valuable stored data), Information System Layer (business applications offering information services to each other and to business functions). Users should have confidence that their interactions with applications will not harm them. Open standards ease interoperation, facilitate broader adoption and reduce vendor lock-in. It introduced structured analysis, after information technology engineering, which features, for example, mappings of organization units to business functions and data entities to business functions. Infrastructure encompasses hardware and virtualized platforms that operate applications, services, and their components. Data Architecture … Since Stephen Spewak’s Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. They relate data entities, use cases, applications and technologies to the functions/capabilities. Middleware provides services to other software as opposed to implementing business functions directly. [9] In other words, Enterprise Architecture is not a business strategy, planning or management methodology. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system. User Experience is a core consideration when designing, selecting, and delivering tools and services to the Harvard community. The NIST Enterprise Architecture Model is a five-layered model for enterprise architecture, designed for organizing, planning, and building an integrated set of information and information technology architectures. There should be multiple vendor or open source implementations for vendor-supplied interfaces. Many of the recent Enterprise Architecture frameworks have some kind of set of views defined, but these sets are not always called view models. In 1993, Stephen Spewak's book Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) defined a process for defining architectures for the use of information in support of the business and the plan for implementing those architectures. [9], In 2011, the TOGAF 9.1. specification says: "Business planning at the strategy level provides the initial direction to enterprise architecture. Provide seamless recovery from failure. Incorporate user feedback throughout the design, testing, and implementation process. Applications designed for the cloud (cloud native, 12 factor) can more easily take advantage of cloud scaling, automation, DR and monitoring capabilities. Technology Layer (generic hardware, network and platform applications offering platform services to each other and to business applications). Perhaps the best-known standard in the field of software architecture and system architecture started life as IEEE 1471, an IEEE Standard for describing the architecture of a software-intensive system approved in 2000. EAM translates the enterprise vision into venture and takes the enterprise through the journey from its current state to the target state. Research firms and the business press trumpet its ability to make companies agile and efficient. Ensure the accessibility and mobility of products. It's an easy concept to define, but more difficult to implement effectively. Use an API versioning system to manage API changes and indicate compatibility levels. Many of the aims, principles, concepts and methods now employed in EA frameworks were established in the 1980s, and can be found in IS and IT architecture frameworks published in that decade and the next.[9]. The standard defines an architecture framework as conventions, principles and practices for the description of architectures established within a specific domain of application and/or community of stakeholders, and proposes an architecture framework is specified by: Architecture frameworks conforming to the standard can include additional methods, tools, definitions, and practices beyond those specified. Each view describes one slice of the architecture; it includes those entities and relationships that address particular concerns of interest to particular stakeholders; it may take the form of a list, a table, a diagram, or a higher level of composite of such. Methods for designing architecture: processes that architects follow. Finally the technology to implement the applications. Since the early 1990s, there have been a number of efforts to define standard approaches for describing and analyzing system architectures. There are several EA frameworks available that provide a structure for EA blueprints / models. Several enterprise architecture frameworks break down the practice of enterprise architecture into a number of practice areas or "domains" (also called viewpoints, layers or aspects). EAP has its roots in IBM's Business Systems Planning (BSP). Obtain data only when needed in order to maximize data currency. Applications should deliver functionality that can be used in multiple organizations. Enterprise Architecture strives to align business information systems technology with given business strategy, goals and drivers. Camarinha-Matos, H. Afsarmanesh, Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling, Springer, 2008. Business Layer (business functions offering services to each other and to external entities). Provide foundational services to customers that improve application quality, delivery and reliability. Security is comprised of people, process, and technology, and done well needs to take all three into consideration. The data view starts with the data classes which can be decomposed into data subjects which can be further decomposed into data entities. Enterprise architecture is unique to every organization, however, there are some common elements. FEAF was a process much like TOGAF's ADM, in which “The architecture team generates a sequencing plan for the transition of systems, applications, and associated business practices predicated upon a detailed gap analysis [between baseline and target architectures].”. In 1987, John Zachman, who was a marketing specialist at IBM, published the paper, A Framework for Information Systems Architecture. The term enterprise architecture did not appear. Data transformation for common data assets is performed the smallest number of times, ideally once. Favor SaaS, then COTS solutions before considering investments in customization and development efforts. We approach the work of defining an architecture for the University by considering each layer of our physical architecture "stack", as well as cross-cutting security requirements, and articulating a set of Principles, Standards and Resources for each layer.
2020 enterprise architecture layers